-graphy Also -graph, -graphic, -graphical, and -grapher.
Writing; the production of images; descriptive sciences or studies.
[Greek graphein, to write.]
The set of words in -graphy is extremely varied. Terms relate to writing, to the transmission of messages or information over a distance, the production of images of various kinds, a descriptive science or study, or a list. For examples, see the list below.
It is common for these terms to have linked words ending in -graph, often for the result of the process (as photography produces a photograph), but sometimes for an instrument involved in a process (seismograph, telegraph); the names of records produced in such cases often end in -gram.
Adjectives may be formed from words in -graphy or -graph either in -graphic (choreographic, topographic) or -graphical (geographical, stratigraphical). In many cases both forms exist. The name of a person engaged in the activity or discipline ends in -grapher (lexicographer, stenographer). See also grapho-, -al1, and -y3.
Examples of words in -graphy
All word origins are from Greek unless otherwise stated.
Relating directly to writing or the transmission of messages:
|biography||an account of a person's life||bios, life|
|cryptography||the art of preparing or reading codes or ciphers||kruptos, hidden|
|lexicography||the practice of compiling dictionaries||lexis, word|
|orthography||spelling, especially correct spelling||orthos, straight|
|stenography||writing and transcribing shorthand||stenos, narrow|
|telegraphy||the science of transmitting information over a distance||tēle-, far off|
The production of images, graphs, or diagrams:
|cartography||the science of drawing maps||khartēs, papyrus leaf|
|cinematography||the art of making motion pictures||French cinématographic, from Greek kinēma, movement, from kinein, to move|
|photography||the taking of photographs||phōs, light|
|pornography||writing and images designed to stimulate sexual excitement||pornographos, writing about prostitutes|
|radiography||the production of images by X-rays, gamma rays, etc.||Latin radius, a ray|
|tomography||a technique for producing a cross-section of the human body X-rays or ultrasound||tomos, slice or section|
|xerography||a dry copying process||xēros, dry|
A descriptive science or study:
|choreography||the art of designing steps in ballet or another staged dance, or the written steps for such movements||khoros, chorus|
|cosmography||the science of the universe||kosmos, order, world|
|demography||the study of statistics charting the changing structure of human populations||dēmos, the people|
|ethnography||the study of different peoples||ethnos nation|
|geography||the science of the physical features of the earth and their relation to human populations||gē, earth|
|oceanography||the science of the sea||from ocean|
|petrography||the study of rocks||petros, stone|
A descriptive list of titles, authors or performers:
|discography||musical recordings||English disc, in the sense of a gramophone record|
|webliography||a listing of pages on the World Wide Web||English web|