Go to 'thermo-' entry Go to 'dino-' entry Go to 'chondro-' entry Go to 'aero-' entry Go to '-logy' entry Go to 'thaumato-' entry Go to 'nano-' entry Go to '-sophy' entry Go to 'bucco-' entry Go to '-ism' entry Go to '-lysis' entry Go to 'galacto-' entry Go to '-anthropy' entry Go to 'pneumo-' entry Go to '-ploitation' entry Go to '-lithic' entry Go to '-sepalous' entry Go to 'onco-' entry Go to '-parous' entry Go to 'dermato-' entry Go to 'multi-' entry Go to 'dodeca-' entry Go to '-zoon' entry Go to 'vermi-' entry Go to 'crystallo-' entry Go to 'biblio-' entry Go to 'eco-' entry Go to 'juxta-' entry Go to 'facio-' entry
Affixes: the building blocks of English
Affixes: the building blocks of English

-ed2 Also -t.

Forming the past tense and past participles of regular (weak) verbs.

[Old English -ed, -ad, -od.]

Examples from a large group include addressed, behaved, cheated, defeated, ironed, judged, lived, sorted, and toasted. Some verbs instead use -t, either after certain consonants (crept, sent) or when there is an internal change of vowel (felt, slept).

Many past participles in -ed can also be used as adjectives: excited, certified, collapsed, devoted, measured, moisturized, organized, pierced, scrambled, soiled, typed, wounded. The sense is not always exactly that of the verb: accomplished, highly trained or skilled in a particular activity, comes from accomplish, to achieve or complete something successfully.

A number of verbs have forms in both -ed and -t (dwelled, dwelt; kneeled, knelt; leaped, leapt; spelled, spelt). As a broad rule, the -t forms are more common in British English and the -ed ones in American English, though the -ed forms are increasingly found also in British English. When the past participles are used as adjectives, the forms in -t are preferred (burnt toast, spilt milk, spoilt child).

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